Thursday, 17 June 2021

Integrating Discord Signin in PHP website

 Discord is one of the top gaming social networking site available now. For some sites, it is required to integrate Discord Signin . So am explaining in this post how to do the same.

1) Create an App in Discord Developers Area

Visit: by login and create an app.

Click on link New Application.

2. Credentials Update

In this screen, they will ask you for name of app, description,logo.etc.. Also you have to give the endpoint website URL, terms link,services link.etc... Also you will get the Application ID and secret from this screen. Copy it and keep it as we are using it in our script.

3)Creating OAuth Id's

Here they will ask you to provide the redirect URL after login with discord. Also you have to select the scopes which u needed after login in. The discord API will pass you all the required parameters based on the scope.

5)Configure BOT

Here add bot and you will get a token.Save it for our App.

6) Download Integrating Script from Github.

You have to download the following github code  in my repo.

Now based on this script I am explaining what to configure and how to achieve it..

5)Updating Credentials in the Script.

In the root folder, you can find the config file which you need to edit and update your credentials.Its code will be like this:-



# (screenshot)

$client_id = "#CLIENTID";


# (screenshot)

$secret_id = "#SECRETID";


# example: identify email guilds connections  

$scopes = "email";


# example:

# example:

$redirect_url = "";


# - Set the `$bot_token` to your bot token if you want to use guilds.join scope to add a member to your server

# - Check login.php for more detailed info on this.

# - Leave it as it is if you do not want to use 'guilds.join' scope.

# (screenshot)

$bot_token = "#BOTTOKEN";

Update all the keys, scopes which we already configured in the Discord developer screen.

6) Now place includes folder in the root of your application. Set redirect URL to the login script in the includes folder.

7) Now run the index file, after signing you can see the details fetched from discord app.These details you can use according to your convinience.

Setting Up Google OAuth Content Screen For Creating API Credentials

 Google will only allow you to create API credentials only after setting up OAuth content screen. This is necessary for creating Google signing also. So Iam explaining here how to do that step by step.

1) Click on Configure Consent Screen

2) Selecting the  Usertype 

3)Giving App Information

Give Appname,Support Email and Applogo.

You have to give application home page url, privacy policy url and terms conditions URL.

Add the authorised domains for using this app. Also fill up the developer email address .Then click on Save and Continue.

4) Define Scopes of the App

Click on Add Scope link

Here select checkboxes for email and profile. For this permission, you no need of any approval from the google. Click Continue.

5) Define Test Users

Here you can add all gmail users who can test this app. you can add around 100 users for this.
Then click on continue.

6) Summary Screen

This is the last stage where summary of your app will be shown. This means your process completed successfully.. Now you can create API credentials for the apps.

Updated Integrating Google Signin with PHP websites

 In modern sites, it's inevitable to have a login system by using social media. This is basically to keep away spammers mostly and verify their profiles from top sites so we will get maximum verified information from them . Most sites will remove the manual registration or sign-in procedures from their sites and go for Social media logins. So programmers be alert. Now in this post am explaining about how to integrate Google signing for your website. Considering other socialmedia integrations, google authentication is quite easy and straight forward. Iam going to explain step by step on how to do this in this post:-

1) Create authorization credentials

The most important thing is to create authentication credentials in Google for whatever api's we are using from then.Any application that uses OAuth 2.0 to access Google APIs must have authorization credentials that identify the application to Google's OAuth 2.0 server. The following steps explain how to create credentials for your project. Your applications can then use the credentials to access APIs that you have enabled for that project. So for creating that :-

a) Go to the Credentials page.

Sometimes we have to configure OAuth content screen for creating credentials. You can find more here in my previous post.

b) Click Create credentials > OAuth client ID.

c) Select the Web application application type.

d) Name your OAuth 2.0 client and click Create

Here you have to enter web application name,then authorised domain URL and the URL where request will come. Please make sure that the redirect URL will be the link after signing, customer will be redirected to.

e) After configuration is complete, take note of the client ID that was created. You will need the client ID to complete the next steps. (A client secret is also created, but you need it only for server-side operations.)

Please take note of the client id you get from here, as we have to put same in one place of our script.

2) Putting JS scripts in the header of the script

 <meta name="google-signin-scope" content="profile email">

    <meta name="google-signin-client_id" content="YOUR_CLIENT_ID_COPIED">

    <script src="" async defer></script>

Include this script over the body of your script page. Replace YOUR_CLIENT_ID_COPIED with the google API key u created.

3)Putting Google signing display button in your page

<div class="g-signin2" data-onsuccess="onSignIn" data-theme="dark">

Put above code in the place you want the signin button to appear. It will display like this:-

4) Putting Javascript code in the page

Put following javascript code snippet code at end of the page.


      function onSignIn(googleUser) {

        // Useful data for your client-side scripts:

        var profile = googleUser.getBasicProfile();

        console.log("ID: " + profile.getId()); // Don't send this directly to your server!

        console.log('Full Name: ' + profile.getName());

        console.log('Given Name: ' + profile.getGivenName());

        console.log('Family Name: ' + profile.getFamilyName());

        console.log("Image URL: " + profile.getImageUrl());

        console.log("Email: " + profile.getEmail());

        // The ID token you need to pass to your backend:

        var id_token = googleUser.getAuthResponse().id_token;

        console.log("ID Token: " + id_token);

        var id = profile.getId();

        var name = profile.getName();

        var email = profile.getEmail();

        var token= id_token;

        window.location.href = "googleaccess.php?id="+id+"&name="+name+"&email="+email+"&token="+token;



5)Create a Google Details Accessing Page

You have to create a page called googleaccess.php to catch all these values ina PHP page. These details you can use for checking the login and registering according to your websites logic.




You can do like this:- You check whether the email exist in your database associated with a user. If yes activate his session and log him in. If his email is not available, then you create account of him by inserting name, email.etc. This is the basic login and register you can do using the Google signin.

You can download sample code from here:-

Sunday, 28 June 2020

GIT Version Control in Cpanel

Now in this modern age, everyone will be working through cloud for their projects. And mostly all will be using Git for cloning, forking projects and do updates. So am just trying explain how we can configure it in a cpanel. When am writing this, Iam of the consideration that, you will be having a valid github account, created your project repository in it.

Mostly We can create Github repositories as public and private. For public repositories, the git cloning will go smooth. But for Private projects we have to do some terminal operations to generate ssh keys for doing it.


1) In Your Cpanel You should be having a Terminal Access. Make sure you have , talk with your server administrators for having it. You can create ssh key through interface also, but for this case, you will be needing the terminal.

2) In the Terminal , Just type like this:-

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -C ""

Make sure the bit is 4096. and  username you can replace it with your cpanel username and, replace it with your domain name. 

3)After you run this command, the system will prompt you to enter a passphrase. Do not enter a passphrase, and press Enter to continue.

4)Now key will be generated in the system. so Inorder to make sure that, its generated. run this:-

cat ~/.ssh/

5) Now you will get an output like:-

ssh-rsa AAAAB3Nzawhdejsfdjhfgdjgfhjfdghjfhgjhjfdhgdfjhgjudfhgjikgfhgfhgfhfghhgfhgfhgfhgfhhgfhasftfgegdggdgdgd...
Copy this and store it somehere. These is your key.

6) Now we have to register key in Github.  For that go to the settings. and click on Deploy Keys menu.

7) You will see an Add Deploy Key option like this:-

8)After, clicking you will get a form like this:-

8)In the Title text box, enter a display name for the key.

9)In the Key text box, paste the entire SSH key.

10) If you want to push code from your cPanel account to your GitHub account, select the Allow write access checkbox.

11) Now in your cpanel, Go to GIT version control page. 

12) In the page coming, click on create button shown on the right side:-

13) Now a create page will come like this:-

In Clone  URL, enter the SSH details instead of https. That you can get from :-

repository path you can set to the domain directory u want to clone. and give a repository name for identification. Then click on create. Your repository will be successfuly created.

14) Now you can manage, the repository by visiting the git list.

After syncing..may be sometimes you dont want the connection setting files to upload everytime.. so after adding files to gitignore you can perform a command like:-

git rm -r --cached . && git add . && git commit -am "Remove ignored files"
or step by step
git rm -r --cached . 
git add .
git commit -am "Remove ignored files"

Enjoy Coding :-)

Sunday, 21 June 2020

Laravel 7- A Quick Guide on Basic Operations

Laravel is one of the advanced and popular frameworks in php. Recently laravel released its version 7, so Iam noting some of the main features to check, while doing a basic CRUD projects.


In Laravel, the routing rules for application is  written in routes/web.php file. Here in Laravel 2 new types of methods has been introduced put and lets check how we can use those in routes.

Route::post($uri, $callback);
Route::put($uri, $callback);
Route::patch($uri, $callback);
Route::delete($uri, $callback);
Route::options($uri, $callback);

In Practical Cases:-


Here if the request comes for cms/list, it will go to CmsController and run the method list(). And you can see its a get request declared.

Consider If you want to store some data, then you have to call that particular method like:-


Consider if you want to edit a post, the ids passed will be dynamic. so the route will be like:-


And in  edit method you can retrieve id as parameter and do the operations.


In Laravel , you can make use of the inbuilt terminal come with that for performing many operations. For this you should have composer installed and configured PHP path. that you can search for how to do that. you can download and install from here:-

    (1)Creating Laravel Project
                 composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel projectname

    (2) For Starting Application 
           php artisan serve

After this you can access your application at:

   (3) Installing Builtin Authentication Library

           php artisan ui vue --auth

  (4) Syncing the Databases

       php artisan migrate

   (5) Making Controiller
      php artisan make:controller Controllername

   (6) Making Model
       php artisan make:model Modelname

    (7)Clearing Caches
 For fast operations, laravel is having a feature to save your config, views and routes in its cache. so sometimes after making changes ,it wont make any effect in your system. may be laravel is picking it from cache folder, so use these commands to clear those configurations.

       php artisan config:clear   - For Clearing config Cache files
       php artisan cache:clear    - For Clearing entire cache folder
       php artisan route:clear    - For Clearing route Cache
       php artisan view:clear     - For Clearing view Cache
       php artisan optimize       - For Optimizing the application


In Laravel Controllers are placed in /app/Http/Controllers/ Folder.

In the top before declaring controller normally these namespaces we will be defining:-

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
use App\Http\Controllers\Controller;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;

For including additional helper files or models You can do like:-

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;

this is for including the Auth model

For Including a model defined in app folder named can declare like:-

use App\Cms;

Declaring Controller will be like:-

class CmsController extends Controller


Define controller extending Controller class included through Name space.


Normally models are placed in app/ folder.

Before declaring model we have to include some namespaces like:-

namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\DB;

The model will be declared like:-

class Cms extends Model


We declare class by extending Model class which is included through namespace.

When we use Eloquent ORM, we have to define certain properties in this file:-

    protected $table = 'cms_pages';

Define the table name here

    protected $primaryKey = 'page_id';

Define the tables's primary key with this

    protected $guarded = [];

Normally Laravel needs to specify which fields are allowed for mass saving and all in the attribute protected $fillable. But if you declare $guarded variable to null, then all fields will be eligible for filling. If you want to restict certain features, you can define it in this variable separated by comma.

    public $timestamps = false;

Normally while saving or creating, laravel will always check for fields named created_at and updated_at in databases. If you don't want those fields, just declare $timestamps as false.

5)Usage of Middlewares

In Laravel, they have given a provision to include middleware. I will explain a scenario where we can use it. Suppose we are logged in admin panel and we require every pages inside admin panel to check whether admin is logged in otherwise redirect to login page. So normally in other frameworks, we have to check whether the admin is logged in manually. But here we can do it very easy way using middleware. 

For Authentication we have to first include  

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;

before the controller declaration. Then in the constructor method, we can put 

public function __construct()
This will autocheck before calling each functions whether its setted or not. You can do this in routes also for each route calling.But more easier way is this one.


For Loading models in controllers we have to first include it on top of controller page. Normally models are placed in app/ folder. so we can call it like:-

use App\Cms;

If we are writing models inside model folder in App directory, then:-

use App\Models\Cms;

Now we can call the model by just writing like this:-


This is scenario where we calling direct query functions.

For calling functions defined in models:-

  $cmsmodel = new Cms();

Here its calling unpublish_record function defined in cms model.


WE can call model functions in views by using this:-

$record= App\Cms::where('page_id',$records->parent)->first();

echo $record->title;


We can check, whether a form is submitted or a value is submitted using:-

  if($request->has('submit')) {


For accessing posted values:-


For getting this normally we have to include request parameter in function declaring.

public function store(Request $request)


And u have to include  use Illuminate\Http\Request;
in the top of controller file.


For validating form we can set rules like:-

 $validatedData = $request->validate([
        'txtMenuTitle' => 'required',
        'txtParent' => 'required',
        'txtTitle' => 'required',
        'txtContent' => 'required',

If the form doesn't fill all fields on submission, it will not execute further.


For Laravel, we just have to call the paginate method by passing number of records per page. it will automatically do everything for you:-

For eg:-


            $query->where('title', 'LIKE', "%{$keyword}%");
            $query->orWhere('page_title','LIKE', "%{$keyword}%");

Here am Just explaining a scenario case, suppose you want to paginate a list of pages, which will be having keywords search also. we will do like this.We have to pass number of records per page into paginate function. 

In View you just have to put:-

<?php echo $pages->links();?>

So a pagination, which is styled in boostrap will appear.


You can load views by calling:-

 return view('cms.list', $data);

Here views are stored in resources/app/views folder

So by calling this laravel will pick list.blade.php file stored in cms folder inside views.


In Laravel view files will be saved as extensions blade.php. This is laravels own templating language.

  i) For Loading css and js

     All Css, js, images are stored in public folder. So inorder to access from it put like:-

  <link rel="stylesheet" href="{{asset('theme')}}/assets/css/bootstrap.min.css" />

Here boostrap.min.css is stored in public/theme/assets/css folder.
You can use same to access all the css, js, image  files stored in public folder.

  2)For accessing Images stored in Uploads folder

<img src="{{ URL::to('/') }}/uploads/image.jpg" width="150px" height="150px"  >

3) Extending a main layout in your view File


Our Theme will be having a normal layout for some pages and its content part will be changing for most pages. so in this case we can define a main layout file in views folder and extend it in our view file. here the view is extending main.blade.php stored in layouts folder in the view folder.

4)Defining Sections  in the layout Files

You can define sections in layout file and include it in the place you want it to appear.  This is used when u want to include a common sidebar. but it have to appear between the dynamic view pages.

so define sections like:-

// Design code here

then call yield to display where you want:-


This you can put in the main layout file, so the section content will be replaced in it while including the same.

5) Including template file

You can also include a theme file into the template using the syntax:-


Here the messagebar.blade.php defined in the layouts folder will be included.


There are many functions inbuilt in laravel for managing the image uploads.

if ($request->hasFile('txtFile') && $request->file('txtFile')->isValid()) {

//$request->hasFile('txtFile') -this function checks, whether the //file has been submitted from the form.

//$request->file('txtFile')->isValid()- this function checks, whether //the file submitted is valid.

             //receiving file
            $file = $request->file('txtFile');

          //getting file values
            $fileorgname      =   $file->getClientOriginalName();
           $fileextension    =   $file->getClientOriginalExtension();
            $filerealpath     =   $file->getRealPath();
            $filesize         =   $file->getSize();
            $filememetype     =   $file->getMimeType();
           // defining allowed extensions
            //Checking whether uploaded file extension is matching the allowed extensions
            if (in_array($fileextension,$allowedextensions)) 
              // Getting the stored name and defining the path uploads in public folder to upload the file
              $imagename = $request->txtFile->store('uploads');  

              $destinationPath = 'uploads';
//Storing the file to uploads folder 
              $file->move($destinationPath, $imagename);




$insertdata = array('title'=>$name,'content'=>$content',banner'=>$imagename)

Here already CMs model has been loaded and by initiating Cms model and passing the array to create function, the data will be inserted.



$insertdata = array('title'=>$name,'content'=>$content',banner'=>$imagename)

Query Builder

   DB::table('cms_pages')->where('page_id', $id)->update(['published' => 0]);

Here calling cms model and passing id and update array we can update records.


We can retrieve a single record or a group of records like this:-


$record= Cms::where('page_id',$id)->first();

QUERY Builder

For getting all:-         

$rec= DB::table('cms_pages')->get();

For retrieving with condition:- 

$rec=DB::table('cms_pages')->where('level', 1)->get();


QUERY Builder  Function

 DB::table('cms_pages')->where('page_id', '=',$list[$i])->delete();

15) SESSIONS and FLASH Messages in Laravel

After saving data, if you want to show success or failure messages, the flash method in  session will be handy. 

we can set a flash variable in session like:-

 $request->session()->flash('msg', 'Selected Items Deleted!!');

We can check, whether that msg variable is set by calling:-

        if ($request->session()->has('msg')) {


 For accessing the msg variable we can call like:-



Thursday, 11 June 2020

Uploading Large Size Files to GITHUB through git

In Girhub , there is a limitation as users cannot upload files more than 25 mb. So in this cases we have to upload it through GIT. 
For windows you can download GIT by going to this URL;

After installing GIT. Open GIT GUI and create a repository.

Then select the folder where your project is lying

Click on Create, then a window will be opened same like this:-

Click on GIT Bash, You will get a terminal screen .Now we have to go to the github site and copy the repository which we want to commit the updates or upload files. So go the repository and copy the Url like this.

Thursday, 28 May 2020

Basic Things to take care when Upgrading from Codeigniter- 3 to Codeigniter-4

Now a big hurdle for all codeigniter developers around the world is to change their projects from CI-3 to CI-4. Now Codeigniter team has changed there formats and structure in such a way that , developers cannot auto-update just  their versions from 3 to 4. They have to manually edit the code and make changes to the code. . So in this article I am going to explain about some of the basic differences in calling functions between the two versions. Here am giving some examples only. For detailed project code and examples, am going to write another post for that in the coming days. For having a peek overview on the changes have a look into these points explained. iam sure someone will get benefit from this article.

1) Folder Structure


In codeigniter-3, we have a folder called application, under which all the config, controllers, models, views is placed . In this version codeigniter doesn't restricted us for putting our css, js in any folders. Instead we can place it in any folders in the root and we can access it from our views.


In Codeigniter-4, the application folder has been renamed as app. Now there is a folder called public, in it now we have to put all our css, js and all. Now when we access base_url from the views to access this public folder. This feature, Codeigniter team created mainly for security purpose, so that anything outside the public folder cannot be accessed by intruders. Another thing  in this versionis the usage of too many namespaces. so we can access all folders in root in our models and controllers by defining the namespaces. 



Route File is found in application/config/routes.php

$route['cms/list'] = "cms/list";
Here when request comes for it will redirect to CMS controller and run the list method in it.
$route['cms/edit/(:any)'] = "cms/edit/$1";
Here when request comes for , it will redirect to CMS controller and run edit method in it . then passes $id argument into it.


Route File is Found in app/Config/Routes.php

$routes->add('cms/create/', 'Cms::create');
Here you can see route file configuration is little changed. Here Controller,method is designated as Controller::method format  and another change is you have to mention the submission method. If you see, this is actually a  a add form, so you have to create method for accepting post requests. For post methods, we have to do like adding $routes-> add(). For get method please refer for cms/list down.

$routes->add('cms/edit/(:any)', 'Cms::edit/$1');

Here when the request comes for domain/cms/edit/3 , it will call the CMS controller and execute edit function in it passing the $id as parameter.As edit also is a form, which is submitting post parameters, we have to define it as Post function in the route. so we will add as $routes->add();

$routes->get('cms/list/', 'Cms::list');

This is a list function. It is taking only get arguments. so we will configure it as a get method in the route. So we have to add the rule like $routes->get(). So when request comes for, it will call the CMS controller and execute the list function defined in it.


This is one of the mighty enhancements done by the Codeigniter community in the new version. AS you know Codeigniter 4 is compatible with php version above 7. so it is utilizing the namespace feature of it abundantly in its new version.

Codeigniter 4

You can define your custom namespaces in app/Config/Autoload.php

If you open that particular file,you can see a array called $psr4. You have to add your namespaces there.

For eg:-

$psr4 = [
'App'         => APPPATH,              
APP_NAMESPACE => APPPATH,             
'Config'      => APPPATH . 'Config',
'IonAuth' => ROOTPATH . 'ion-auth-4',
                       'Admin'   => ROOTPATH . 'ci4-admin',
                       'Myapp'   => ROOTPATH . 'app',

You can see in the above configuration, i have defined some namespaces like Ion-Auth, Admin,Myapp .etc. What I am doing is assigning the path of those modules to that name. So I can access the controller,models,views in those folders just by using those static names.

For eg:- If am writing below line in any of my controller:-

echo view('Admin\Views\admin_template\admin_mainheader', $data);

System will identify Admin\ as a namespace and it will replace it with the path defined in namespace. so whatever included in that path will be executed. This gives a large advantage when we design our application.



In Codeigniter 3, we used to define controllers like:-

class Cms extends extends CI_Controller {


Controller class was extending CI_Controller Class.

we used to define models like:-

class Cms_model extends CI_model {


Model class was extending CI_model.


In CI-4 this scenario is completely different.

In controller we have to define like:-


namespace App\Controllers;
use CodeIgniter\Controller;
use App\Models\Modelname;

class Cms extends Controller {



Here we have to include Controllers in the top as namespaces. Also have to include models by defining it like this Use App/Models/Modelname. This place you can make use of the custom namespaces we saw above to include your models.

namespace App\Models;
use CodeIgniter\Model;

class CmsModel extends Model {

Same like controllers, we have to define namespace paths for the models and include them. Here model is going to extend the model class instead of CI_model.



        $this->load->library(['ion_auth', 'form_validation','pagination']);
        $this->load->helper(['url', 'language','form']);
In the previous version, we were loading database, library, helpers and models like this. Just check below how in the CI-4 version, everything is loading.


     $db = \Config\Database::connect();
    $this->ionAuth    = new \IonAuth\Libraries\IonAuth();
    $this->validation = \Config\Services::validation();
    helper(['form', 'url','string','text']);
    $this->session       = \Config\Services::session();
    $pager = \Config\Services::pager();

Here Everything is loading differently. Just check the differences in both calling methods.



$totalrecords= $this->cms_model->get_allrecord();

this is how model was loading and calling functions in the CI-3 Version. Loading the particular model by calling $this->load(->model() function. then calling particular function defined using $this->modelname function() . Now we will check how this is acheived in Codeigniter-4.


Here we have to first include  path to the Model in top of controller before calling it..

use App\Models\CmsModel;

then to create object for the model. we have to declare like this-

$cmsmodel = new CmsModel();

then for calling the function:-

$totalrecords= $cmsmodel->get_allrecords();

Here you can see we are calling the function by using the object declared above. 



Accessing Post variable from form submission
$keyword=   $this->input->post('keyword');
Accessing GET variables
$keyword=   $this->input->get('keyword');


Accessing POST variables
$keyword= $this->request->getPost('keyword');
Accessing GET Variables



  $this->form_validation->set_rules('txtMenuTitle', 'Title', 'trim|required');
  $this->form_validation->set_rules('txtParent', 'Parent', 'trim|required');


  $this->validation->setRule('txtMenuTitle', 'Title', 'trim|required');
  $this->validation->setRule('txtParent', 'Parent', 'trim|required');

If you clearly notice you can see there are some minor changes only. form_validation chnaged to validation and set_rules changed to setRule.


    $config['base_url'] = $data['urls'].'/auth/cms/list';
    $config['suffix']=$searchstring; // passing the search strings
    $config['total_rows'] = $data['count'];// total count of records fetched
    $config['per_page'] = $per_page_records; //count wanted per page
    $config["uri_segment"] = 2;         
    $config['first_url'] = $config['base_url'] .'?'. $config['suffix'];     
    $config['full_tag_open'] = "<ul class='pagination pull-right no-margin'>";
    $config['full_tag_close'] = '</ul>';
    $config['num_tag_open'] = '<li>';
    $config['num_tag_close'] = '</li>';
    $config['cur_tag_open'] = '<li class="active"><a href="#">';
    $config['cur_tag_close'] = '</a></li>';
    $config['prev_tag_open'] = '<li>';
    $config['prev_tag_close'] = '</li>';
    $config['first_tag_open'] = '<li>';
    $config['first_tag_close'] = '</li>';
    $config['last_tag_open'] = '<li>';
    $config['last_tag_close'] = '</li>';
    $config['prev_link'] = '<i class="ace-icon fa fa-angle-double-left"></i>';
    $config['prev_tag_open'] = '<li class="prev">';
    $config['prev_tag_close'] = '</li>';
    $config['next_link'] = '<i class="ace-icon fa fa-angle-double-right"></i>';
    $config['next_tag_open'] = '<li class="next">';
    $config['next_tag_close'] = '</li>';
    $config['use_page_numbers'] = FALSE;
    $config['enable_query_strings'] = TRUE;
    $config['page_query_string'] = TRUE;
    $config['reuse_query_string'] = FALSE;
    $config['attributes'] = array('keyword' =>$keyword);
    $config['attributes']['rel'] = TRUE;

    $this->pagination->initialize($config);// initializing the configs 
    $data['pagelinks']= $this->pagination->create_links();//creating links

Here it was like setting all your configuration into the config variable and then passing it to the initialize function, then the pagination class will be auto creating links for you which you will call in the view. Also please note that you can pass the search variables through suffix variable in the config.



Here they removed the $config settings procedure. here we just have to call the paginate method on the particular model. Search parameters you can pass just like data fetching way. If you have more search parameters, you just have to append it in the $model->where() or $model->like type of functions. Now in the view you just have to call like:-

<?php  echo $pager->links(); ?>

This will display all the pagination links in the view page. You can further customize these links or pagination style using advanced ci-4 functions codeigniter is providing. Just refer their documentation for more details.



$ci =&get_instance();
$record=  $ci->cms_model->getdetails($id);

Sometimes we will be having requirement to call a particular Model function inside view itself. In those scenarios we can call that method in the view using instance function as described above


In CI-4, its is more simple we have to just create an object in the controller method and just pass the object to the view. From there, we can call that particular method from model using the object.

So In Controller define like:-
 $cmsmodel = new CmsModel();
Pass it to the view. then in View, just call the function.
  $record=  $cmsmodel->getdetails($id); 



$this->load->view('cms/list', $data);

Just we have to call the view page by using $this-.load->view method.


echo view('cms\admin_list', $data);

In CI-4 , it is more simplified and we have to just pass view file path to view() function.
For view file lying in other folders outside the app folder. You should define namespaces for them and call them like:-

echo view('Admin\Views\admin_template\admin_mainheader', $data);



class Cms_model extends CI_model {
 protected $table = 'cms_pages';

        public function __construct()

      public function functionname()

Defining models by extending CI_Model class. Then defining $table in the proteted variable, so can us it all the functions coming under the model. In construct method, loading the database. Then defining each and every functions under it. This is how we did in CI-3.


namespace App\Models;
use CodeIgniter\Model;

class CmsModel extends Model {
 protected $table = 'cms_pages';
 protected $primaryKey = 'page_id';
 protected $allowedFields = ['order','level','parent','position','published','default','featured','title','page_title','content','banner','date_update','seo_title','seo_keywords','seo_description','seo_slug'];

        public function get_records() {

Here in model, first you have to include namespace path. Then include codeigniter model file. Then define the Model extending Model class. Now here these 3 fields are almost mandatory to put. Sometimes codeigniter doesnt allow saving data without these variables defined in the model.




$this->db->insert($this->table, $data);


  $this->db->where('page_id', $id);


  $this->db->where('page_id', $id);

        $query = $this->db->get($this->table);
        return $query->result_array();

-Get Last Insert ID


-Getting DB error Messages






$this->update($id, $data);




$rec = $this->where(array('level' => '1'))->findAll();

-Get Last Insert ID


-Getting DB error Messages


If you watch closely you can see all function calling have been simplified a lot.